1954-1962: Children of Windrush


It wasn't just adults who arrived in Britain from the Caribbean after the Windrush during the 1950s - it was children too.  Some arrived with one or both parents, others arrived alone to join parents already in Britain.  Part of what subsequently became known as the “Windrush Generation”, the children made their lives in Britain, some working for over 40 years and paying taxes.

In 2010 the Home Office introduced its hostile environment policy, with "the aim to create, here in Britain, a really hostile environment for illegal immigrants".  These chidlren, although here legally, were caught up in this new 'environment'.

The onus of proving people’s status was placed on employers and landlords, with large fines if they employed or housed someone deemed illegal.  This was a seismic shift in policy and culture in the Home Office.  People were required to provide evidence of their right to stay - records of National Insurance payments were deemed insufficient in at least one instance.

Immigration officials were not allowed to use their discretion in these cases, but had to follow strict rules and the introduction of 'targets' for deportations. Some people lost their homes and jobs and were denied healthcare on the NHS.  Some were deported.

Since the predicament of the Windrush Generation has been brought to public notice, one Home Secretary has resigned and a Windrush Taskforce has been set up to assist those who want to obtain documents giving a right to stay.  

The quotes shown here describe graphically the result of the 'hostile environment' for the children  of Windrush.


Sep 22 1958 - 'A party of 583 emigrants from Jamaica arrived at Newhaven today'

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 Sep 22 1958  (c)  TopFoto

Sep 22 1958

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'...arrived with his mother in the UK aged three from Jamaica and who has never lived anywhere else. Because he had insufficient paperwork proving he had a right to be in the UK, he was told he was an illegal immigrant with no right to live here. He lost his job...'

- Immigration Law Practitioners’ Association


Oct 21 1954 - 'Veronica Rose Rawle, from Kingston, Jamaica, in Britain to join her father, who is working in Birmingham, seen on arrival here aboard the Sibjaki. Hundred of Jamaicans, hoping to find jobs in Britain, arrived on the ship.'

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Mar 6 1962 - 'In her Sunday best hat, this spruce and tiny Jamaican girl waits patiently to disembark from the Begona when she arrived at Southampton with a party of more that 400 West Indian immigrants.'

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'...moved to Britain from Jamaica 51 years ago when she was six, and has lived here ever since...she was challenged by the benefits agency to prove she was here legally after losing her job. She was devastated when her immigration status was questioned.'

- Immigration Law Practitioners’ Association


 Nov 30 1961 - 'A first glimpse of England for this wide-eyed litle girl who arrived with another 216 Jamaicans from the West Indies at Southampton docks. They arrived in the Spanish liner Montserrat.'

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 Jan 3, 1962 - ' This little girl - one of 650 immigrants - wearing a floral blanket over her shoulders, laid down a huge travelling basket and posed for her picture aboard the Liner Ascania when it arrived here last night. The six hundred and fifty are the first large party of West Indians immigrant to reach Britain this year. they should have arrived on Christmas eve, but one of the liners propellers was damaged by tug in Barbados and he had to steam to Martinque for repairs.'   (c)  TopFoto

Jan 3, 1962 - 'This little girl - one of 650 immigrants - wearing a floral blanket over her shoulders, laid down a huge travelling basket and posed for her picture aboard the Liner Ascania when it arrived here last night. The six hundred and fifty are the first large party of West Indians immigrant to reach Britain this year. they should have arrived on Christmas eve, but one of the liners propellers was damaged by tug in Barbados and he had to steam to Martinque for repairs.'

(c) TopFoto


Oct 24 1961 - 'A West Indian mother and child catch a first glimpse of the land which is to become home, as they arrive in Southampton docks from the Spanish passenger vessel Montseraat. Nearly 300 west Indians arrived on board the Spanish ship. The immigrants are believed to be hurrying to Britain before any rumoured restrictions are made on their entry.'

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'...joined her parents in the UK from Barbados in 1963. After 52 years, a job centre employee told her that she was an “illegal immigrant” and, because her passport with evidence of leave to remain had been stolen, she was unable to work or travel.'

- Immigration Law Practitioners’ Association


Nov 30 1961 - 'Wearing a towel to keep his shoulders dry from the rain, and holding tight his wide-brimmed hat, a bewildered youngster steps ashore from a tender at Southampton docks for a first look at the land which will be his home. He was one of 217 Jamaicans who arrived from the West Indies in the Spanish liner Montserrat. When questioned most of the Jamaicans said they were planning to stay with relatives while looking for work.'

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Oct 24 1961 - 'This Jamaican women carries her suitcase and son down the gangway of the Tender "Balmoral" followed by other passengers today. The "Balmoral" had brought the immigrants from their liner moored in Cowes Roads because of bad weather. The immigrant had left the West Indies in the "Montserrat" in good weather but on arrival here it was raining very heavily and many had only light summer clothing.'

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Jun 24 1962 - 'First glimpse of Britain makes a big impression on this tiny West Indian pictured at Southampton on arrival in the Italian liner Ascania. the ship had on board about 1,100 immigrants - the largest number to reach Britain from Trinidad, barbados and St Kitts. They arrived only a week before the introduction of the Commonwealth Immigrants Act, under which the British Governement has power to limit the number of Commonwealth citizens coming to Britain to work or to settle.'

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Jan 3 1962 - 'West Indian boy just arrived at Southampton. He was one of about 650 West Indian immigrants who arrived in the Italian liner Ascania before settling down to a new life in Britain.'

(c) TopFoto



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1952: Behind the scenes at Lyons

'Waitresses in a staff meeting in the art deco dining room, before the restaurant is open'

(c) TopFoto


Before Starbucks, there was Lyons.

In 1952, when these behind-the-scenes photographs were taken, Lyons was the world's largest restaurant company and, seating more than 2,000 people, the Lyons Corner House at Coventry Street was the largest restaurant in the world.

Opening in London's West End in 1909, Lyons Corner Houses were a prominent part of the Lyons empire.  Each one occupied several floors of a building, with a shop on the ground floor selling a variety of cakes, sweets, fruit and items from a delicatessen counter.  The Corner Houses also had hairdressing salons and telephone booths.  A differently themed restaurant existed on each of the four or five floors, each with its own musicians.  

Both the Lyons Corner Houses and the Lyons Tea shops had a signature Art Deco style and the waitresses, known as 'Nippies', had a distinctive uniform and cap.  At its peak, each Lyons Corner House employed 400 staff.

To keep the restaurants supplied, a food production factory in Hammersmith produced pies, bread, and cakes and other items. And to control the logistics of dealing with perishable food items within such a large company, Lyons became the first such company to develop and use computerised systems.

By the 1960s, however, the teashops were being eclipsed by fashionable coffee houses, and were losing money. The last Corner House was closed in 1977.


  'A   waiter ties his bow-tie'   (c)  TopFoto

'A waiter ties his bow-tie'

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'Men preparing food'

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'Kitchen staff making up plates of food ready for ordering.'

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 'A male waiter adjusts his shirt-front'

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  'Kitchen staff plating up various salads ready for ordering'   (c)  TopFoto

'Kitchen staff plating up various salads ready for ordering'

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'A woman adds cress to salads'

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'A pastry chef topping the eclairs with chocolate'

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'Waitresses in the staff wash room , getting ready for their shift'

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'A waitress struggles to fit all the order on her tray watched by her supervisor'

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'A Nippy waitress in the store room of trays and jugs'

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'Waitresses stacking serving dishes on trays' 

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'The line up for the staff canteen'

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1948: Docklands before 'Docklands'

  'A view down Wapping High Street, East London, lined with wharves and warehouses for the London Docks.'   (c)  TopFoto

'A view down Wapping High Street, East London, lined with wharves and warehouses for the London Docks.'

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On the north bank of the Thames, at the heart of London's Docklands, sits the ancient area of Wapping. The construction of docks at Wapping was completed in 1815, replacing many of the area's houses and wharves.  

The Blitz of WWII devastated Wapping including extensive damage to the church of St Peter. Father Fox, the parish priest, campaigned vigorously to have the church restored, and the work was completed within four years. Wapping's children celebrated St Peter’s Day on June 29th, 1948, with a parade through the specially decorated streets.

Working on the docks was insecure and poorly paid for many.  Although new modern housing was constructed to replace buildings lost in the War, poverty returned in the 1960s with the inexorable closure of the docks.  The arrival of the global containerisation system relied on ships too large to navigate the Thames as far as Wapping.

A small number of physical features have survived both the 1815 redevelopment and the Blitz - the old steps down to the edge of the Thames, and the pub, 'The Prospect of Whitby', which backs onto the edge of the river.  Today, the warehouses have become apartments. 


'A family of three generations of East Londoners - a grandmother, her daughter and her small children, peer cheerfully through their window. Wapping, East London.'

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'Living with the old and the new in post-war Wapping, East London. A mother with her children in the old passageways between the old back-to-back houses of the London docks. A new block of flats emerges at the end of the street.'

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  'A mother with her little girl in Wapping, Docklands'   (c)  TopFoto

'A mother with her little girl in Wapping, Docklands'

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 'Meeting in a church graveyard this band of young boys are armed to the teeth teeth with toy bows and arrows and are off to play ' Robin Hood and his Merry Men '. Wapping,  East London.'

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'The children of St Peter' s London Docks School, Wapping, East London, enjoying playing in their playground. Masts and funnels of ships in the docks peep over the rooftops overshadowing the playground.'

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'Father Fox of St Peter's Church, London Dock, Wapping, with two of his parishioners putting up bunting for the St Peter's Day celebrations'

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'Mothers with their children gather outside St Peter's Church, London Dock, Wapping, as they wait for the procession to be organised for the St Peter's day celebrations.'

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'Children processing down Wapping High Street, East London, during the St Peter's Day celebrations'

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'Children looking after the flowers in the garden at St Peter's Church'

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'The construction of new buildings in Wapping , the London dock area which had been heavily bombed during the London blitz in World War II.'

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'A street view of the historic public house, ' The Prospect of Whitby ' which is on the banks of the River Thames at Wapping Wall'

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'Stylish headgear being worn by two East End young ladies waiting outside St Peter's Church'

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'Two dock workers pause for a chat and a smoke in the dock area of Wapping, East London, with a backdrop of funnels and masts and wartime bomb damage'

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1948: Minister of Tobacco

Sep 8 1948 - 'The Reverend Hugh Cuthbertson examines one of the large leaves of a tobacco plant in his garden.'

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In 1941, Hugh Sainsbury Cuthbertson had taken up his post as Vicar of Tilty Abbey church, near Great Dunmow, in Essex.  After WWII, tobacco was in short supply and the Rev. Cuthbertson, needing funds for the repair of the church tower, began to offer information on how to grow the crop in return for a 5 shilling donation. 

The enterprise was so successful that not only was the church tower repaired, the Rev. was also able to replace three windows in the church building. 

Rev. Cuthbertson then cultivated tobacco on the land surrounding the vicarage, and founded the Tilty Tobacco Centre and Co-operative.  The curing process takes only two months and it is not affected by climate changes.

Cuthbertson was not alone.  Many British people took up the home growing of tobacco after tthe war.  The minister became president of the National Amateur Tobacco Growers' Association, published a magazine called The Smoker, and co-authored a book on the subject.


  ''It's good too' - The Rev Hugh Cuthbertson samples a pipe of his own tobacco in a curious African native pipe - one of his prize collections.'   (c)  TopFoto

''It's good too' - The Rev Hugh Cuthbertson samples a pipe of his own tobacco in a curious African native pipe - one of his prize collections.'

(c) TopFoto


'The vicar has himself laid down 35 types of tobacco and his association has wrestled from the Chancellor of the Exchequer permission to process leaf for members up to 25 pounds an annum free of excise duty.'

- original caption


'The Vicar inspects his tobacco plants, cutting of which will commence next week. In the background is the vicar's church'

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'Mr Cuthbertson is working hard to promote tobacco growing in this country, and with this end in view he has started the Amateur Tobacco Growers' Association of which organisation he is honourable secretary. '

- original caption




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1930s: Open-Air Schools

Dec 4, 1933 - Pupils dressed for warmth at St James' Park Open-Air School

(c) TopFoto


England's first open-air school opened in 1907.  The schools gained popularity in the 1930s as a means to combat tuberculosis, a disease then rife. 

Children considered to be at risk of developing the disease - identified by stunted growth and mental 'dullness' - were sent to the schools. By 1937, 96 open-air day schools and 53 residential schools had been established across the country.

A 1912 publication, 'The Open Air School', had set out the blueprint for how such schools should be run.  The regime included vigorous exercise, rest periods during the day and a wholesome diet with plenty of meat, dairy products and vegetables.

Outdoor subjects included horticulture, bee keeping, natural history, woodwork and meteorology (schools had their own weather stations).  Academic lessons were based around these activities on desks and chairs in the open - assuming it was not raining.  

But by the 1950s, the schools had begin decline.  The BCG vaccine was introduced in 1953 and antibiotics became widely available after WWII.  Together with slum clearances, the Clean Air Act and the NHS, the threat of tuberculocis was radically reduced, and the schools had lost their imperative to exist.


 (c)  TopFoto

"On an occasion some of us will not easily forget, the ink became solid in the ink-wells, snow blown into the classroom in the morning was swept out in the afternoon, dinner was served with snow sauce, for there was no means of keeping snow out of the dining shed.”


Jun 11 1936 -  'Astonishing results have followed the introduction of a 'roof-top' schoolroom at Popham Road Boys' School, Islington. The schoolroom was installed last year to accommodate 30 backward and ailing boys. Records show that the pupils have gained in height, weight, and general fitness. The classroom is furnished with folding desks, blackboards, a master's table and a weighing machine. It has even been fitted by the boys with electric light. Mr A.W. Dean, the headmaster, is so satisfied with the results of the experiment, that other classes are to use the roof - top room.'

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“Vigorous physical exercise should precede sitting-down lessons, overcoats and rugs will serve to retain the natural heat of the body.”

 

May 26 1937 - 'The minimum of dress and maximum of fresh air and sun is the rule at the Bow Road Open-Air Day School in London's East End, where the pupils are revelling in the heatwave.'

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 May 26 1937 -  'Lunchtime at Bow Road open-air school. Fresh air has an effect on the appetite.'   (c)  TopFoto

May 26 1937 - 'Lunchtime at Bow Road open-air school. Fresh air has an effect on the appetite.'

(c) TopFoto


 May 26 1937 -  ' Physical exercise for the lightly-clad pupils at Bow Road open-air school. '   (c)  TopFoto

May 26 1937 - 'Physical exercise for the lightly-clad pupils at Bow Road open-air school.'

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 May 26 1937 -  'The lightly clad pupils at lesson in the Bow Road open-air school.'   (c)  TopFoto

May 26 1937 - 'The lightly clad pupils at lesson in the Bow Road open-air school.'

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'May 26 1937 - Pupils gardening at Bow Road open-air school.'

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1938 - 'An 'official' sign that summer is now here is the fact that the children at the open-air school in St James's Park are now wearing their sun helmets for the first time this year.'

TopFoto


Sep 21 1937 - 'St James's Park school children take to blankets. Autumn has brought chill winds to London, and pupils in the open air school at St James's Park have sought refuge in blankets to keep themselves warm at the lessons.'

(c) TopFoto



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1947: The first male district nurse


At the end of World War II, men returning home from the services with medical training were demobbed and recruited to fill peacetime positions in the health service.   

In 1947 an experiment was conducted. Four men, dubbed the 'early pioneers', were selected to be trained as District Nurses.  They nursed only male patients and did not wear a uniform, changing into a white jacket when in the patient’s home.  At first, the lack of uniform led them to being seen as insurance agents, meter readers, or even intruders.

The scheme proved to be successful and male district nurses became an established part of the profession, taking on a full range of duties and having an official uniform.


  'Doing his rounds on a bicycle'   (c)  TopFoto

'Doing his rounds on a bicycle'

(c) TopFoto


'Setting out on home visits'

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'Helping new mothers with their childcare and powdering a baby's bottom is all part of the service'

- Original caption, 1947


'Greeted at the door by one of his patients'

(c) TopFoto


  'Giving an injection to an elderly patient'   (c)  TopFoto

'Giving an injection to an elderly patient'

(c) TopFoto


  'Giving an injection to an elderly female patient'   (c)  TopFoto

'Giving an injection to an elderly female patient'

(c) TopFoto


  'Giving a male patient a bed bath'   (c)  TopFoto

'Giving a male patient a bed bath'

(c) TopFoto


'Before setting off on their home visits these district nurses are briefed by the senior nurses and for the first time they are joined by a male colleague'

(c) TopFoto


'Stocking up on his medical dressings and other equipment, before setting off on his home visits'

(c) TopFoto


'Greeted at the door by one of his patients'

(c) TopFoto


'Washing and dressing leg ulcers on an elderly male patient'

(c) TopFoto


  'Relaxing with a cup of tea and a piece of cake this lone male district nurse gets to know his female nursing colleagues in the newly implemented National Health Service'    ( c)  TopFoto

'Relaxing with a cup of tea and a piece of cake this lone male district nurse gets to know his female nursing colleagues in the newly implemented National Health Service'

(c) TopFoto



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1928: On London's Skyscraper


In images rivalling those of skyscraper construction in New York,  these men are building 55 Broadway - the headquarters of the Underground Electric Railways Company of London, a main forerunner of the London Underground.

Intended to be a bold exciting building to reflect the company's modern, progressive values, 55 Broadway was to be the tallest construction in London at that time.  There were problems to be overcome though - the ground had an irregular footprint and St James’s Park station was just 7.3 metres (24 ft) below the surface.

Architect Charles Holden designed the building and construction began in 1927, and it was completed in 1929. It was faced with Portland stone and several noted artists of the time were commissioned to provide decorative sculptures for the external walls.  Two of these, by Jacob Epstein, were considered scandalous owing to the nudity in one of the sculptures.  Epstein chipped about an inch from the penis of one of the figures and the matter was resolved.

The building is now Grade 1 listed.


  ( c)  TopFoto

 (c)  TopFoto

'These apparently nerveless human flies who crawl about unsteady beams and girders at giddy heights call themselves 'Ironfighters''

- Original caption, 1928


 (c)  TopFoto



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March 1938: London's Lost Property

   'Lost birds which come into the lost property office in large numbers around Christmas time and baskets of provisions.'    ( c)  TopFoto

 'Lost birds which come into the lost property office in large numbers around Christmas time and baskets of provisions.'

(c) TopFoto


Until the middle of the nineteenth century, property lost on London's transportation was not taken to a centralised location. Owners in search of a lost time/item were reliant on placing advertisements in newspapers.  

However, in 1869 the Metropolitan railway established the “Central Repository for Lost Things”. The Central Repository eventually relocated to a purpose built site in Baker Street station, in 1934, and was renamed the London Transport Lost Property Office.  Umbrellas required their own room.

Today the Lost Property office is run by Transport for London and now includes items left on London buses, in Victoria coach station, on black cabs and the Underground. In 2016, almost 140,000 items were picked up on the Tube alone.  Items are kept for three months and if unclaimed, donated to charity of sold at auction to contribute to running costs.

Unlike 1938, the Office no longer stores edible objects.


  'Umbrellas stacked up in the Lost Property office.'   (c)  TopFoto

'Umbrellas stacked up in the Lost Property office.'

(c) TopFoto


'Forgetfulness by tons and thousands: how London, the absent minded, keeps lost property offices busy'

- Original caption, March 1938


Loading lost suitcases.

(c) TopFoto


 Hats  (c)  TopFoto

Hats

(c) TopFoto


'Personal garments'

(c) TopFoto


'A tasteful group of vegetables, marrows, antlers and motorcycles and a barometer.'

(c) TopFoto


'The bewildering complexity of forgetfulness, an array in the oddments department which suggests losers of all ages classes and walks of life'

- Original caption

 (c)  TopFoto


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1950s: Foolin' at the Foundry


Despite being known primarily as the seaside resort made fashionable by the Georgian Prince Regent, Brighton also had a thriving industrial heart.  In the 1950s, some of the extra-curricula activities enjoyed by the staff at this unidentified foundry and engineering shop were documented by one employee, an amateur photographer.


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 (c)  TopFoto

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1967: Twiggy Gets a Haircut

 (c)  TopFoto

1967 saw Twiggy, British supermodel, beginning a tour of the USA.  She had her hairdresser, Leonard of Mayfair, flown over at a cost of £254 (c. £3000 today) to have her hair cut.  The cut itself cost 3 guineas (c. £40 today).

Twiggy, aka Lesley Hornby, had been discovered the previous year after answering a call for models by hair stylist Leonard of Mayfair, who was experimenting with a new cropped hairstyle.  Leonard styled Twiggy's hair into its iconic style, and a professional photographer took head shots.  These shots were seen by the fashion editor of a national newspaper, who had more photos taken and published them with the byline ‘The Face of 1966’.  Twiggy was only 16 and her boyish face and her slim androgynous body shape took the fashion world by storm. 

Leonard of Mayfair (aka Leonard Lewis) had trained at Vidal Sassoon’s salon before starting his own business. He built up a client list that included The Beatles and Mick Jagger, and later worked in cinema, most notably with Stanley Kubrick.






 (c)  TopFoto

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1939: Tennis hopefuls

 (c)  TopFoto

Schoolgirls at Tudor Hall School being instructed by school tennis coach Herbert Pervin, emulating the dazzling career of the British tennis player Dorothy Round.  Round was ranked no.1 in the world in 1934, winning the Wimbledon Ladies' Singles Shampionship that year and again in 1937.  She won the Wimbledon Mixed Doubles three years in a row from 1934, twice partnered by the top British men’s player Fred Perry.

One pupil, Joy Gannon, is already showing early promise.  Gannon went on to be coached by Dan Maskell, coach of the winning British Davis Cup team of 1933.  She had a career as a singles and doubles player.  Ted Tinling, who later became world famous as a tennis couturier, designed his first Wimbledon tennis dress for Joy in 1947.

In 1949 she reached the women's doubles final at the French Open (Roland-Garros).  She married Anthony John "Tony" Mottram that year and partnered him in mixed doubles.  In 1952, she reached the quarter-finals of the women's singles at Roland-Garros .

Later, both became tennis coaches and in 1957 wrote a book titled 'Modern Lawn Tennis'.  Their son ‘Buster’ Mottram  was a Davis Cup tennis player in the 1970s.


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1935: Life at Camp Kinder Ring

 Campfire with Youth Choir conducted by H. Wolowitz  (c)  Forward

Campfire with Youth Choir conducted by H. Wolowitz

(c) Forward


These photos from the archives of the  Forward Newspaper, founded in 1897, stem from an ad placed in the paper in 1935: 

'The Workmen's Circle of New York, beneficial support system and friend to Jewish immigrants and progressive citizens everywhere, extended an invitation to family, friends, members and children to come Upstate and enjoy the opening of their 10th season at Camp Kinder Ring in shady, cool, gloriously nature-bound Pawling, New York. A rich program was on offer with concerts, symposiums and atheltic games--all prepared by the talented personnel.'

The camp, whose alumns include noted former US Senator Barbara Boxer, offered a vibrant progressive Jewish summer education for campers, primarily the children of the immigrant working classes, that was steeped in Yiddish language and culture. The camp still exists, currently located in Sylvan Lake, NY.


 The interior of the kitchen, with staff lined up for the camera  (c)  Forward

The interior of the kitchen, with staff lined up for the camera

(c) Forward


 Forverts Newspaper (Forward) founding Editor-in-Chief Abraham Cahan speaking to group gathered at Camp Kinder Ring  (c)  Forward

Forverts Newspaper (Forward) founding Editor-in-Chief Abraham Cahan speaking to group gathered at Camp Kinder Ring

(c) Forward


 Abraham Cahan addressing the camp  (c)  Forward

Abraham Cahan addressing the camp

(c) Forward


 Folks rushing up the stairs at Camp Kinder Ring  (c)  Forward

Folks rushing up the stairs at Camp Kinder Ring

(c) Forward


 The dining room  (c)  Forward

The dining room

(c) Forward


 The main building on grounds of Camp Kinder Ring  (c)  Forward

The main building on grounds of Camp Kinder Ring

(c) Forward


 Dining at the camp  (c)  Forward

Dining at the camp

(c) Forward


 Children in the dining room  (c)  Forward

Children in the dining room

(c) Forward


 The bunk rooms  (c)  Forward

The bunk rooms

(c) Forward


 The lake and the dock  (c)  Forward

The lake and the dock

(c) Forward


 Arts and Crafts counselor, acclaimed artist Chaim Gross seen leaping off the dock  (c)  Forward

Arts and Crafts counselor, acclaimed artist Chaim Gross seen leaping off the dock

(c) Forward


 The entrance to the Workmen's Circle Camp Kinder Ring showing 'welcome' sign, parking lot and Yiddish transliterated insignia 'Arbeter Ring'  (c)  Forward

The entrance to the Workmen's Circle Camp Kinder Ring showing 'welcome' sign, parking lot and Yiddish transliterated insignia 'Arbeter Ring'

(c) Forward


 Children at work in a garden  (c)  Forward

Children at work in a garden

(c) Forward


 Crowds gathered outside main building at Camp Kinder Ring  (c)  Forward

Crowds gathered outside main building at Camp Kinder Ring

(c) Forward


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 All pictures drawn from the Forward Archive

All rights reserved by Forward. Please contact Forward Archivist, Chana Pollack, for reproductions.

 
 


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1961: The President comes to London


Just under five months after his inauguration as 35th President of the USA in January 1961, John Kennedy and his wife Jackie made a short visit to London, on June 4th and 5th, to attend the christening of Jackie’s niece.  Although described as a private visit, the Kennedys dined at Buckingham Palace with the Queen, and JFK met with the then-Prime Minister, Harold Macmillan.

The visit proved to be highly popular one, with crowds of people lining the streets as the couple drove through the city.  The impact of the visit was long-lasting, connecting English people with the President. After July 1962, and the launch of the Telstar satellite, British people followed the JFK through television broadcasts relayed from the US.

In January 1963 one enterprising shop window mannequin manufacturer created Kennedy and Macmillan mannequins to boost sales in men’s fashion outlets.

By the end of the year, President Kennedy was dead.


 June 4th 1961 -  'US President John F. Kennedy with Harold Macmillan and his wife at London Airport'   (c)  TopFoto

June 4th 1961 - 'US President John F. Kennedy with Harold Macmillan and his wife at London Airport'

(c) TopFoto


 June 5th 1961 - President Kennedy chats to a group of young American schoolchildren when leaving the American embassy  (c)  TopFoto

June 5th 1961 - President Kennedy chats to a group of young American schoolchildren when leaving the American embassy

(c) TopFoto


'My fellow citizens of the world: ask not what America will do for you,

but what together we can do for the freedom of man.'

- Kennedy's Inaugural address


 June 4th 1961 - Kennedy and Macmillan address journalists at London Airport  (c)  TopFoto

June 4th 1961 - Kennedy and Macmillan address journalists at London Airport

(c) TopFoto



 (c)  TopFoto


June 4th 1961 - 'Vast crowds press against a police cordon to wave and cheer President John Kennedy as he rides in an open limousine with British Premier Harold Macmillan in Palace Street, Victoria, tonight.'
 

(c) TopFoto


 June 4th 1961 -  'A London policeman peeps in as president John Fitzgerald Kennedy chats with British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan in the hallway of Prince and Princess Radziwill's Buckingham Place home. Also in the picture is the president's wife Jacqueline.'   (c)  TopFoto

June 4th 1961 - 'A London policeman peeps in as president John Fitzgerald Kennedy chats with British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan in the hallway of Prince and Princess Radziwill's Buckingham Place home. Also in the picture is the president's wife Jacqueline.'

(c) TopFoto



 US President, John F. Kennedy and British Prime Minister, Harold Macmillan made into shop window dummies to boost sales in clothes shops around London, England.  (c)  TopFoto

US President, John F. Kennedy and British Prime Minister, Harold Macmillan made into shop window dummies to boost sales in clothes shops around London, England.

(c) TopFoto


July 23rd 1962 - Drinkers in a pub in Walworth Road, London watch the first live television picture transmitted by satellite (Telstar), a news conference by President John F Kennedy from Wasinghton DC, USA

(c) TopFoto


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1937: London in the heatwave

August 7th, 1937

(c) TopFoto


Britain experienced several heatwaves in 1937.  In May and June of that year, and again in August, temperatures threatened to break records, but just failed to do so.  

Even so, it was extremely hot and men in particular sweltered in heavy suit jackets and trousers, and - in the case of Grenadier Guards - bearskin helmets.


 August 6th 1937 - Children in the lake at St. James' Park  (c)  TopFoto

August 6th 1937 - Children in the lake at St. James' Park

(c) TopFoto


May 25th, 1937 - Victoria Embankment Gardens

(c) TopFoto


 August 7th, 1937 - St James' Park  (c)  TopFoto

August 7th, 1937 - St James' Park

(c) TopFoto


 August 6th, 1937 - Children of the 'Santa Claus' home in their heatwave dress in Waterlow Park,  Highgate, London.  (c)  TopFoto

August 6th, 1937 - Children of the 'Santa Claus' home in their heatwave dress in Waterlow Park,  Highgate, London.

(c) TopFoto


 May 29th, 1937  (c)  TopFoto

May 29th, 1937

(c) TopFoto


August 7th, 1937 - St James' Park

(c) TopFoto


May 28th, 1937 - 'The crowded tea gardens in Hyde Park, which was the favourite resort for workers in the lunch hour when the heatwave returned in full force to London.'

(c) TopFoto


August 7th 1937 - 'Adventurous holidaymakers make a bold cruise in their soapbox canoe at Greenwich, London'

(c) TopFoto


July 3rd, 1937 - 'The long queue stretching for hundreds of yards outside the Wood Green open air pool as bathers waited their turn for a 'cooler'. This queue was only one of the many formed outside London's open-air baths when a July heatwave sent the temperatures soaring.'

 

c) TopFoto


August 7th, 1937

(c) TopFoto



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1934-1952: Tower of London Beach

 May 30, 1947 -  'The famous Windmill Theatre girls work hard, but they know how to play when they get a brief break between shows. London's own beach by the Thames at Tower Bridge is near enough to the theatre for the girls to change into swimsuits and enjoy a brief breather with hundreds of Londoners who are enjoying a spell of early summer. Picture shows left-to-right Josephine Hamlett, Jill Anstey, Anita D'Ray, Avril Amos, Toni Leighton and Mavis Greenaway springing on the beach as the Tower Bridge go up in the background.'   (c)  TopFoto

May 30, 1947 - 'The famous Windmill Theatre girls work hard, but they know how to play when they get a brief break between shows. London's own beach by the Thames at Tower Bridge is near enough to the theatre for the girls to change into swimsuits and enjoy a brief breather with hundreds of Londoners who are enjoying a spell of early summer. Picture shows left-to-right Josephine Hamlett, Jill Anstey, Anita D'Ray, Avril Amos, Toni Leighton and Mavis Greenaway springing on the beach as the Tower Bridge go up in the background.'

(c) TopFoto


Realising that a trip to the seaside was financially out of reach for most East End children, in 1934 the Tower Hill Improvement Trust decided to create a beach on the banks of the Thames close to London's Tower Bridge in London. The trust located a stretch of shingly, muddy foreshore, uncovered at low tide and brought in 1,500 tons of sand in barges to cover it.

The beach was officially opened on July 23rd 1934 by the Lieutenant of the Tower of London.  King George V decreed that the beach was to be used by the children of London and that they should be given “free access forever”.   The King’s blessing was necessary as a previous royal proclamation by King Edward III forbade swimming here “on pain of death”. 

Like any other beach, visitors could enjoy deckchairs for hire, ice-cream carts, sandcastle building and the chance to paddle.

A newspaper reported "When it was opened a few weeks ago they expected that 500 children a day would visit it. But there were 5,000 a day from the beginning, and considerably more since the summer holidays started.”. It was estimated that between 1934 and 1939 over half a million people used the beach. 

In 1939 with the start of WWII and the evacuation of many of London’s children, the beach closed, but was reopened after the War in 1946.  It remained popular until 1971 when it was finally closed due to concerns over pollution.  Ironically pollution levels were in fact lower than the 1930s, and continued to fall.


 May 29, 1937  (c)  TopFoto

May 29, 1937

(c) TopFoto


July 27, 1951

(c) TopFoto


July 27, 1951 - 'Kevin Murphy, a 14-month-old youngster from Shoreditch, London, discarded convention with his clothes when 11-year-old sister Patricia introduced him to Old Father Thames at Tower Beach, near the Tower of London. Passing shipping provides the waves for the youngsters who splash around at London's 'Seaside.''

 

(c) TopFoto


 July 23rd, 1952 -  'Mrs D.E. Greenfield (in chair) and Mrs B.R. Kirk, both of Camberwell, ensure daytime peace for night-working husbands-sleeping at their homes by taking the children to the popular Tower Beach.'   (c)  TopFoto

July 23rd, 1952 - 'Mrs D.E. Greenfield (in chair) and Mrs B.R. Kirk, both of Camberwell, ensure daytime peace for night-working husbands-sleeping at their homes by taking the children to the popular Tower Beach.'

(c) TopFoto


1952 - 'On sand brought up from the seaside some years ago, the youngsters play, watched by their mothers'

(c) TopFoto


1946 - 'The Children's Beach in front of the Tower of London has been reopened after having being closed at the outbreak of war. The opening ceremony was performed by the Governor of the Tower, Colonel E.H. Carkeet-James, in the presence of Yeomen Warders from the Tower and a detachment of Irish Guards. The photo shows the crowd pouring down gangways from the liner 'Rawalpindi', sunk during the war, which was lowered for the reopening of the beach.'

(c) TopFoto


 1946 - ' Chief Warder A.P. Cook, D.C.M., M.M., B.E.M., ( Distinguished Conduct Medal, Military Medal and British Empire Medal ) of the Tower of London talking with one of the first visitors to the reopened beach.'   (c)  TopFoto

1946 - 'Chief Warder A.P. Cook, D.C.M., M.M., B.E.M., ( Distinguished Conduct Medal, Military Medal and British Empire Medal ) of the Tower of London talking with one of the first visitors to the reopened beach.'

(c) TopFoto



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1936: Sheffield invades London


In 1936, the Football Association Cup final saw London's Arsenal take on Sheffield United - nicknamed the Blades after Sheffield's steel cutlery industry - at Wembley Stadium.

Sheffield laid on special trains to London for the match, with the total number of spectators at over 93,000.  The Sheffield fans made the most of their time in the capital by touring the city, resplendent in their red-and-white team colours.  As these pictures show, some appeared to be wearing pyjamas in team colours over their ordinary clothes.

Due to a dispute over payments between Wembley officials and the newsreel companies, the media were banned from the stadium. Only one official Wembley cameraman filmed inside that day.  Some enterprising companies reacted by using autogyros to film the match from the air and the BBC, in an ‘experiment’, used commentators for the first time.

Final score: Arsenal 1, Sheffield 0.


Energetic Sheffield supporters with rattles in Trafalgar Square

(c) TopFoto

 (c)  TopFoto


 'Sheffield cup tie supporters go gay in London. London has been given a 'northern' touch by the thousands of Sheffield United Cup Final supporters who have arrived for today's big match. The photo shows happy cup final supporters from Sheffield in Euston Road'   (c)  TopFoto

'Sheffield cup tie supporters go gay in London. London has been given a 'northern' touch by the thousands of Sheffield United Cup Final supporters who have arrived for today's big match. The photo shows happy cup final supporters from Sheffield in Euston Road' 

(c) TopFoto


 Sheffield supporters watching the Changing of the Guard in front of the King's House, at the Tower of London  (c)  TopFoto

Sheffield supporters watching the Changing of the Guard in front of the King's House, at the Tower of London

(c) TopFoto


"A pavement artist with a topical turn of mind did a brisk 'business' on Tower Hill when crowds of Shefield Cup Final supporters stopped to admire his drawing of Harry Hooper, the Sheffield captain wedded to the FA Cup"

(c) TopFoto


 A line of Sheffield supporters in Trafalgar Square  (c)  TopFoto

A line of Sheffield supporters in Trafalgar Square

(c) TopFoto



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c. 1932: Kissing the Tutti Men

Apr 1932 - "Tutti-men claiming their toll of kisses during the festival at Hungerford.

(c) TopFoto


Once a medieval feast day across England, today the annual Hocktide Festival is seen exclusively in Hungerford, Berkshire. It began more than 600 years ago to celebrate the granting of free fishing and common land rights to the town by its patron, John of Gaunt.

Hocktide's elaborate proceedings include the right to kiss the 'prettiest girls' of the town by 'Tutti' (or tything) men. After the election of the Tutti by the Hocktide 'court', the men are given traditional wands of office - staves decorated with flowers. They then exercise the privilege of either collecting a penny from each resident or kissing the prettiest girl on the premises.

With 102 houses to visit, the Tutti men's labours last the best part of a day.  Meanwhile Tutti Maidens hand out sweets and oranges. Finally, heated coins and oranges are thrown from the Town Hall steps to children gathered outside.


 (c)  TopFoto

 Apr 1949 -  " Charles Greater, on top of a ladder, claiming a kiss from Beryl Morley"  (c)  TopFoto

Apr 1949 - "Charles Greater, on top of a ladder, claiming a kiss from Beryl Morley"

(c) TopFoto


 (c)  TopFoto

 (c)  TopFoto


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c. 1959: Battling Barbara Buttrick

Feb 1949 - "Protests against the plan to star Barbara Buttrick , the 18-year-old boxer from Cottingham , Yorkshire, with a male sparring partner at a London music Hall witll be considered by the Variety Artists' Federation at a meeting next Wednesday.  Barbara, 7 stone,  a shorthand typist in a West End London office is booked to box in her first public show at the Kilburn Empire ( London ) on 7 March.  Her act will include shadow boxing, ball punching and two two-minute rounds with a male boxer. The picture shows Barbara sparring at the gymnasium where she trains"

(c) TopFoto


Born in 1930, Yorkshire-born Barbara Buttrick aka ‘The Mighty Atom of the Ring’ knew from an early age she wanted to box.  Aged 18, she started touring with carnival boxing booths in the USA. 4ft 11ins tall,  she boxed as a bantam weight and from 1950 to 1960 was the World’s unbeaten flyweight and bantamweight champion. 

Fighting exhibition matches against male opponents, she retired at the age of 30, having fought 32 professional matches with only one loss and one draw. In 1989, Barbara helped found the Women's International Boxing Federation (WIBF), and is currently its president. 


 March 1949:  18-year-old boxer Barbara during a punch-ball practise   (c)  TopFoto

March 1949: 18-year-old boxer Barbara during a punch-ball practise

(c) TopFoto


 October 1959 -  "Miami , Florida:  The weaker sex show what they can do in a mansized sport .  Battling bruisers are Barbara Buttrick left , of Yorkshire , England and Gloria Adams of Miami.  Barbara outboxed Gloria to win the four-round event"   (c)  TopFoto

October 1959 - "Miami , Florida:  The weaker sex show what they can do in a mansized sport .  Battling bruisers are Barbara Buttrick left , of Yorkshire , England and Gloria Adams of Miami.  Barbara outboxed Gloria to win the four-round event"

(c) TopFoto


 October 1959 -  "Miami , Florida:  It's the first bout in a women's boxing competition and Barbara Buttrick, from Yorkshire, England is shook by a jolting left to the jaw in the second round of her contest with Gloria Adams of Miami.  Nevertheless Barbara was the winner of the four round contest."   (c)  TopFoto

October 1959 - "Miami , Florida:  It's the first bout in a women's boxing competition and Barbara Buttrick, from Yorkshire, England is shook by a jolting left to the jaw in the second round of her contest with Gloria Adams of Miami.  Nevertheless Barbara was the winner of the four round contest."

(c) TopFoto